Distribution Eastern Asia between the Russian Far East, southern India and Sri Lanka, and the Mollucas Islands. Elevations range from sea level to 6,500 feet (Grehan, 2011).
Systematics Revised by Tindale (1941, 1958) and Chinese species byZhu et al. (2004), the latter including illustrations of larvae and pupae. Includes 60 species, but monophyly has yet to be corroborated. The presence of a specialized prothoracic sensory pit in the larva and some other features may represent evidence of a close phylogenetic relationship with some other stem and root boring genera such as Aenetus, Phassus, and Phymatopus(Grehan & Rawlins, 2003). The species named Endoclita sibelae (Roepke, 1935) is to be correctly placed in the genus Aenetus.
Biogeography The distribution of Endoclita is vicariant to that of Aenetus and this geographic relationship my also represent evidence of a close relationship according to the vicariance criterion (Craw, Grehan & Heads, 1999). This evidence was recognized by Tindale (1958) who noted that the tendency to have large eyes in the adult is not the only link between Endoclita and Aenetus, and that they may be closely related with a tendency to replace each other east and west of Weber's or Wallace's line. Grehan (2011) suggested that this pattern is the result of local differentiation from a widespread common ancestor whose range encompassed the combined distributions of each genus. This differentiation may have been promoted by the tectonic history associated with the origin of the triple plate junction of the Asian, Philippine and Australian plates.
Larvae are wood borers of trees and shrubs (Grehan, 1989). Early instar larvae are predicted to be detritus or fungal feeders as reported for one species by Kalshoven (1965), implicated for Endoclita malabaricus where there is a three month delay between egg deposition and subsequent entry into tree hosts (Nair, 1982; Tintumol et al., 2014), and recently documented for E. signifer by Yang et al. (2013). A unique pattern of development occurs in E.excrescens and E. signifer in Japan where early instar larvae feed on the leaves of grasses or herbs for about a month before transitioning to tunneling into woody plants and feeding on callus (Ueda, 1979). Details of embryonic development were described by Tanaka et al. (1985).
Liang & Lee (2011) surveyed the distribution and biology of Endoclita sinensis larvae on host trees in Taiwan. Yang et al. (2013) examined the life history of E. signifera as pest of Eucalyptus plantations where most larvae were found to complete development within one year, and some required two years. Zeya (1980) described damage to teak by Endoclita sp. in Myanmar (See larval biology page)
Literature Grehan, J.R. 1989.Larval feeding habits of the Hepialidae. Journal of Natural History 33, 469-485. Grehan, J.R. 2011.Notes on the biogeography and phylogeny of eastern Asian ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 40, 59-74. Craw, R.C., Grehan, J.R. & M.J. Heads. 1999. Panbiogeography: Tracking the History of Life. Oxford University Press, New York. Grehan. J.R. & J.E. Rawlins. 2003.Larval description of the New World ghost moth Phassus and the evolutionary biogeography of wood boring Hepialidae (Lepidoptera: Exoporia: Hepialoidea). Journal of the Washington Entomological Society 105, 733-755. Hampson, G.F. 1892.The Fauna of British India: Moths vol 1. Taylor & Francis, London. Kalshoven, L.G.E. 1965. Notes on some injurious Lepidoptera from Java. Tijdshrift voor Entomologie 108, 73-93. Kondo, Y. 1961. Damage to trees by Phassus signifer and its some ecological notes. Tottori Society of Agricultrual Science, Transactions 13, 110-124. Liang, J-Y. & Lee, M-J.2011. Status of forest trees infested with Endoclita sinensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 25, 203-210. Matsuzawa, H., Toyomura, K. & Kohama, Y. 1966. On the food plants of the larva of the swift moth Phassus excrescens Butler. Kontyu 34, 304-310. English translation. Nair, K.S.S. 1982. Seasonal incidence, host range, and control of the teak sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus. KFRI Research Report 16, 1-36. Nair, K.S.S. 1987.Life history, ecology and pest status of the sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Lepidopera: Hepialidae).Entomonograph 12, 167-173. Nishi, K. & Yoshii, T. 1979. On the damage of the mulberries by the swift moth Endoclita excrescens (Butler). Journal of the Sericultural Science of Japan 48, 263-267. English translation Scmetacek, P. 1998. On an unusual Swinhoe, C. 1892. Catologue of eastern and Australian Lepidopera Heterocera in the collection of the Oxford University Museum I. Sphinges and Bombyces (Oxford Clarendon Press). (Section on Endoclita copied). Tanaka, M., Koayashi, Y. & Kondo, H. 1985.Embryonic development of the nervous system and other ectodermal derivatives in the primitive moth, Endoclita sinensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). In Recent Advances in Insect Embryology in Japan, ed by H. Ando & K. Miya. ISEBU Co. Ltd., Tsukuba, pp. 215-229. Tindale, N.B. 1941. Revision of the ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Homoneura, family Hepialidae). Part IV. Records of the South Australia Museum 7, 15-46. Tindale, N.B. 1958. Revision of the ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Homoneura, family Hepialidae). Part VII. Records of the South Australia Museum 13, 157-197. Tintumol, K., Vigayalakshmi, C.K., Rahiman, P.A. & Vinodkumar. 2014. A report on the occurence of the Teak sapling borer, Sahyadrassus malabaricus (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) attacking coffee. International Journal of Advanced Life Sciences 7, 165-167. Tshistjakov, Y.A. 1966. Taxonomic study of the Far Eastern hepialid moths. Record 2. Description of Endoclyta excrescens subsp. n. (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae) from southern Primorye. Japan Heterocisist's Journal 190, 247-248. Ueda, K. 1979.Endoclita excrescens. Natural History 1, 18-20. English translation. Ueda, K. 1987. A new species of the genus Endoclita Felder & Rogenhofer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) from Taiwan. Tinea Supplement 12, 103-108 Yang, X-H., Yu, y-H., Wu, Y-J., & Luo, Y-Q. 2013.Report of Endoclita signifer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as a new pest on Eucalyptus. Journal of Economic Entomology 106, 866-873. Yang, X.H., Yu, Y.H., Cao, S.G., Luo, Y.Q., Wang, J.J. 2013. Morphology and Biology of Endoclyta signifer Walker (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), a New Wood Borer on Eucalyptus. Forest Research, 2013,26 (1).: 34-40 Yasuda, T. & K. Abe. 1986.Endoclita hosei Tindale (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) attacking eucalyptus in Sabah, with descriptions of the immature and imaginal stages. Applied Entomology and Zoology 21, 417-423. Zeya, A. 1980. Observations on a root-borer of young plantation teak in Prome Forest Division. Forest Research Institute Myanmar Leaflet 2/79-80, i-ii, 1-27. Zhu, H., Wang, L. & Han, H. 2004. Fauna Sinica. Insecta Vol. 38. Lepidoptera. Hepialidae. Epiplemidae. Science Press, Beijing