Distribution Canada and northern United States, and Appalachian region south to North Carolina
Systematics Valid speices with considerable variation in wing pattern.
Habitat Forest. Mostly spruce and fir dominated habitats, more aubundant at higher elevations in southern distribution range.
Biology Intensively studied at the Forest Entomology Laboratory at the University of Vermont due to possible impact on high elevation sprunce and fur decline in the northeastern United States either independently or in combinatin with atmospheric pollution from ozone and acid rain. Under the direction of Bruce Parker a program of ecological assessment was instituted with sutdies on distribution denstities in relation to elevation by David Wagner, feeding intensity and distribution of pathogenic fungi by John Grehan and Dale Bergdal, and life history and soil distribution by Johnathan Leonard and Don Tobi. The environmental impact studies were discontinued in early 1990's as economic recession eliminated funding sources that also precluded publication of research results.
Larvae burrow into forest humus and feed on tree or seedling roots within the duff. Adults fly mostly in July. Most larvae develop over two years and overwinter in early or late instars of each generation (Tobi et al., 1992), but some may develop over one or three years. Emergence is predominantly on even years in some localities (mostly Vermont, Hew Hampshire, northren New York and southeastern Quebec) and odd years in others (mostly Maine, Nova Scotia, Gaspe Peninsula, southern New York) (Leonard et al. 1994)